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Milk cooled after milking is transported to dairy producing farms by transport tanks or transport tankers. The transport tanks are insulated and maintain the coldness of the milk by maintaining the cold chain during transport. After use, the tanks are cleaned and disinfected by the washing heads inside and made safe for reuse.
Milk brought to small-tonnage dairy farms by jugs or larger-tonnage dairy farms via transport tanks or tankers are subjected to a series of laboratory analyzes prior to acceptance to the farm. Dry matter ratio, fat ratio, water content are detected for antibiotics and microbiologically analyzed. Milk whose quality criteria are found to be adequate is accepted into the farm and the quantitative measurement process is started.
The quantity of milk arriving is determined either in kilograms by weighing or in liters by volumetric meters. A milk intake scale or scale is used to determine the weight of the milk. If the milk has come into the business with jugs; the jugs are emptied into the pan of the scale. When the pan is full, the operator here records the quantity indicated by the pointer on the scale, and pumps the milk into the silo tank by transferring it to the under-weighing pool. If the milk is brought to the farm by tankers, the weighing process is done in large scales. These types of scales are placed in a separate compartment inside the farm building or in a shed outside the building. After operating the scale, the operator here weighs the vehicle both when it is full and after the milk has been emptied. The difference is recorded as the quantity of milk. Another method is the measuring (weighing) tank system. In this system, sensitive stimulators (load cells) are placed under the feet of the measuring tank, which display the measurement result and send electrical signals to the control panel. The signals from the stimulators increase in proportion to the weight of the milk being filled into the tank, and when the milk intake is complete or the tank is full, the amount of milk is determined by the control panel. However, since the meter measures air generated in the system especially during the agitation of the product in addition to the milk, false results may be obtained. In order to eliminate this problem, an air removal unit (deaerator) is placed in the system before the meter.
Milk may contain cellular materials such as some epithelial cells and leukocytes that come out of the udder during milking. However, there may be contamination of milk after milking with solid materials such as hay, straw, stalk, hair, fertilizer residues and soil particles. These materials not only spoil the appearance of the milk but also mediate the contamination of microorganisms that cause microbial spoilage. Therefore, both during and after milking, unwanted materials that contaminate the milk should be removed from the milk. Various purification methods are used for this purpose. Filtration and clarification by means of wire strainers and/or in-line filters placed on the milk intake scales are methods used on farms. Purification using a filter While the caked milk is poured into the milk intake scale, it is filtered through wire strainers placed on the scale. However, this process only removes visible large-sized solids from the environment. A method commonly used in medium and large scale enterprises is to place metal strainers in the tank of the weighing scale when milk is received, and to install metal line filters at the inlets of the plate coolers as an alternative to coarse filtration. These filters are made of stainless steel and require frequent cleaning and disinfection. Purification with Centrifugal Force (Clarification) Somatic cells, blood clots, leukocytes, some microorganisms, bacteria-rich protein aggregates and other pollution factors that cannot be removed by coarse purification are effectively purified by the clarification process. Mechanization of the process of purifying the milk from coarse particles as the volume of milk increases is recommended for ease of operation. Mechanical separators, called clarifiers, are used for this purpose. During clarification, the milk enters from the inlet pipe and spreads out in the form of a thin film in the channels between the bowls. With the direction of the rods on the bowls and the effect of centrifugal force, foreign particles with a higher density than the milk is separated and accumulates at the bottom of the separator sludge cavity, while the milk separated from the impurities rises to the top and is discharged from the discharge pipe. Elements with a diameter of 4-5 microns can be removed with the cleaning process with clarifiers.
If the raw milk coming into the farm is not cooled, it must be cooled first. Plate heat exchangers are used for cooling purposes. In plate heat exchangers, the milk is cooled by impact with cold water and transferred to storage tanks. Alternatively, the milk is cooled in milk cooling tanks. This milk, which is stored as cooled, should be fed into production as soon as possible. Milk whose quality criteria are determined, are stored in different tanks according to their characteristics. In addition, milk coming to the farms from different sources is also stored according to these characteristics by mixing (blending). Raw milk taken into operation is stored in vertical tanks (silos). Small silo tanks are usually located inside the farm and large ones located outside. The storage tanks are double-walled and contain an isolation layer between the two walls. In addition, these tanks have a mixing system. However, mixing should be done extremely carefully and vigorous mixing should be avoided. This is because vigorous mixing causes air to enter the milk and damage the membrane surrounding the fat globules. This may cause the formation of an unpleasant rancid taste in the milk. For this reason, propeller mixers are used in silo tanks. In tanks, temperature indicator, level indicator, an electrode system that stops the mixer when the filling level is below the mixer, but activates the mixer when it rises above the mixer, preventing overflow and showing that the tank is completely empty with the electrode placed on the ceiling. There is a lower level control electrode placed in the outlet part at the lower point.
The milk powder preparation unit is used to standardize the dry matter of milk and to prepare Reconstituted Milk with water and milk powder instead of raw milk. The main purpose of dry matter fortification is to maintain the desired physical and sensory properties in the final product and to ensure consumer appreciation. In many countries, the standardization of the dry matter content of cow’s milk used in the production of yoghurt and similar products has been obliged by legal regulations. Increasing the dry matter content with the addition of milk powder is a widely used method due to the low investment cost. Skimmed milk powder is usually used for this purpose. In order to mix milk powder with water or milk effectively, tre-blenders with high conversion and homogenization effect are used. The product passing through the Tre-Blender and mixed with the powder is taken to the storage tank to be sent to the pre-processing unit.